Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 19°N - 10°S
Asia and Oceania: India and Sri Lanka to south-eastern Asia, Indonesia, Philippines and New Guinea. Recorded from Australia (Ref. 7300) and Palau (Ref. 6371).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894)
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults inhabit both fresh and brackish waters of rivers and swamps (Ref. 2847, 44894) or near the river mouth (Ref. 13533). They occur mainly in thick vegetation of muddy, still water bodies, such as lagoons, swamps, canals and rice fields (Ref. 6028). Live in soft bottom sediments in quiet, well vegetated backwaters of brackish estuaries and nearby swamps (Ref. 44894), usually in burrows. Prefer estuarine or tidal areas, as efficient burrowers. The male guards and builds nest or burrow (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh, usually not kept alive for long periods of time (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
The male guards and builds nest or burrow (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication, no. 9. 268 p. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 2847)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00083 (0.00038 - 0.00184), b=3.09 (2.89 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).