Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 350 - 3000 m (Ref. 1371), usually 1300 - 2500 m (Ref. 5951). Deep-water; 62°N - 62°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal: Except the North Pacific north of 10°N. Reported from the Walvis Ridge and near the Discovery and Meteor seamounts (Ref. 44938).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 41 - 43 cm
Max length : 75.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5208)
Found on the continental slope and upper rise (Ref. 6606). Epibenthic (Ref. 58426) and benthopelagic (Ref. 5951). Deep waters to 3277 m (Ref. 58426). May move offshore with age and spawn in the deep parts of its range. Off the eastern coast of United States, it is speculated that the population use the area only as feeding grounds with spawning taking place to the north. Feed on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 9319).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.9 - 4.6, mean 2.9 °C (based on 4347 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00155 - 0.00372), b=3.24 (3.11 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 12.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .