Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 22 - 500 m (Ref. 58489), usually ? - 150 m (Ref. 9072). Subtropical; 23°S - 50°S, 112°E - 176°W
Southwest Pacific: Australia and New Zealand waters. Two subpopulations probably exist in the Great Australian Bight and southeastern Australia, respectively, and two species or subspecies in the southeastern group (Ref. 7456).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 9072)
Adults occur in coastal waters, including estuaries (Ref. 9563), mostly in waters shallower than 150 m and warmer than 13°C (Ref. 9072). Commonly found on the bottom, in midwater and occasionally at the surface (Ref. 9258), in large schools (Ref. 33616). Adults are generally found over offshore rocky reefs, while juveniles are generally found in shallow, soft substrate areas (Ref. 6390). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 21.2, mean 15.3 °C (based on 70 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01021 - 0.03098), b=2.98 (2.83 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.30; tm=3-4; tmax=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 389 [205, 685] mg/100g ; Iron = 5.69 [2.94, 9.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.9, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.663 [0.337, 1.300] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.8 [12.5, 71.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.11 [1.79, 33.60] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.88 [1.95, 4.44] mg/100g (wet weight);