Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Scomberoidinae
Etymology: Scomberoides: Greek, skombros = tunny or mackerel, 1623 + Greek, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 3197). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 30°N - 31°S, 18°E - 143°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Hawaii, Marquesas, Line and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4225); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); max. published weight: 11.0 kg (Ref. 9987)
Found only in relatively clear waters (Ref. 32693), adults in clear lagoon and seaward reefs, juveniles in shallow inshore and brackish waters (Ref. 9710). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Mainly solitary but sometimes form small loose groups (Ref. 48635). Adults feed on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 5213) while juveniles feed on scales and epidermal tissues torn from other schooling fishes (Ref. 9710, 90102). Venom glands were not visible, not able to be confirmed in specimen (Ref. 57406). Utilized fresh, dried or salted or frozen (Ref. 9987).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Migrate to the outer reef slope to spawn several days after the full moon (Ref. 37816).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 1708 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00815 - 0.01857), b=2.88 (2.76 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.61, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.91, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.1 [19.3, 85.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.91 [0.48, 1.84] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.7, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.304 [0.148, 0.624] g/100g ; Selenium = 50.1 [23.5, 104.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58 [16, 204] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.958 [0.613, 1.492] mg/100g (wet weight);