Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Decapterus: Greek, deka = ten + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 214 m (Ref. 58302), usually 30 - 70 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 39°N - 34°S, 180°W - 180°E
Indo-Pacific and Southeast Atlantic: from Knysna to Natal, South Africa to Australia, including Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, and in the Central Pacific Islands from South Korea to Gulf of California to Peru, including Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9283). Distribution in south Western Australia, and South Australia is false.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 17.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3197); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
soft rays: 27 - 30. Body slender, elongate, and somewhat circular in cross section; posterior end of upper jaw concave dorsally and with a rounded protrusion ventrally; edge of shoulder girdle (cleithrum) with two small papillae, the lower one larger; dorsal and anal fin each followed by a separate finlet (Ref. 55763). Color metallic blue dorsally, silvery ventrally; fins hyaline; opercle with a small black spot (Ref. 2334). 24-40 scutes. Very slender compared to similar species (Ref. 48635).
A predominately pelagic schooling species (Ref. 9283, 48635, 58302). Occasionally seen in small groups along reef slopes adjacent to deep water in pursuit of zooplankton (Ref. 48635). Adults feed mainly on small invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref. 9283).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.1 - 28.6, mean 27.3 °C (based on 829 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00869 - 0.01262), b=2.96 (2.93 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.2 (1.1 - 1.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 36 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.50-1.60; Fec = 43,000).
Prior r = 1.11, 95% CL = 0.73 - 1.67, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 227 [63, 576] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.44 [0.91, 5.49] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.6 [19.3, 21.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.23 [0.12, 0.45] g/100g ; Selenium = 71.5 [27.5, 172.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 36.9 [13.3, 115.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.18 [0.68, 2.04] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.