Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 30°N - 37°S, 19°E - 167°W
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Samoa (Ref. 592) and Tonga (Ref. 53797), north to Japan, south to Australia (Ref. 3197) and New Caledonia (Ref. 9070).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 16 - 20. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D1 VII-VIII, D2 I,20-23 (usually 22 or 23); lobe of second dorsal fin filamentous in young, becoming shorter with age, in mature adults distinctly shorter than head length (larger than 25 cm fork length, height of second dorsal-fin lobe usually shorter than head length, and slightly to distinctly shorter than anal-fin lobe); A II + I,16-20; gill rakers including rudiments 5-8 + 15-19 = 21-27; straight part of lateral line with 16-20 scutes, and 31 to 50 total elements (including anterior scales); breast naked ventrally to distinctly behind origin of pelvic fins; laterally, naked area of breast typically extends diagonally to naked base of pectoral fins (rarely, naked areas of breast and pectoral-fin base interrupted laterally by a narrow band of scales); jaws with bands of villiform teeth, the bands widest anteriorly; in life, bluish green above, silvery grey below; sides with numerous, small yellow spots and a small black blotch on upper margin of opercle; second dorsal, anal, and caudal fins dusky, the latter sometimes yellowish; pectoral fins pale yellow; pelvic fins hyaline to pale grey (Ref. 9894); often with 5 diffuse dark bars (Ref. 90102).
Adults are found in deep coastal reefs and rarely inshore (Ref 3197). They are usually in small groups over sand bottoms near reefs (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 28.9, mean 27.8 °C (based on 782 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01530 - 0.04319), b=2.91 (2.77 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33 [16, 73] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.32 [0.58, 2.92] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [17.7, 21.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.183 [0.094, 0.362] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.12 [3.58, 21.60] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 87.8 [8.5, 624.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.595 [0.291, 1.292] mg/100g (wet weight);