Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 70 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 35°N - 8°S, 33°E - 150°E
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, and the Gulf of Oman to Indonesia, the Gulf of Thailand, the Philippines, and Okinawa, Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 24.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); common length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Adults are common along coastal reef slopes or around large coral heads in lagoons (Ref. 48635). A xanthic form often seen in muddy bays mixes in schools (Ref. 48635). Juveniles solitary in sheltered coastal basys (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1984. Carangidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3287)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 944 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00420 - 0.01309), b=2.87 (2.72 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Tmax=8; K = 0.24-0.59).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.4 [21.1, 73.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.33 [0.62, 2.66] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.5 [18.2, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.176 [0.106, 0.296] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.5 [6.2, 23.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.8 [4.4, 285.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.742 [0.399, 1.546] mg/100g (wet weight);