Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
() > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Carangoides: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 3197). Tropical; 37°N - 35°S, 25°E - 127°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (to Port Elizabeth, South Africa, Ref. 3197) to the Hawaiian Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 8.0 kg (Ref. 3287)
Adults are found in coastal waters adjacent to sandy beaches; also found to depths of 60 m, often near reefs (Ref. 30573). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Singly or in small groups (Ref. 48635). They feed mainly on mollusks, benthic crustaceans, and occasionally on small fish (Ref. 90102) that are abundant in the lagoons. Excellent food fish (Ref. 12484), the flesh is rarely poisonous.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1490 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01486 - 0.02443), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .