Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Apsilinae
Etymology: Paracaesio: Greek, para = the side of + Latin, caesium = bluish grey (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 9821), usually ? - 100 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 30°S, 32°E - 127°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Marquesas and Pitcairn, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 27.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
Adults are found over rocky bottoms often in schools. They feed on plankton (Ref. 9710, 48635). Usually marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Anderson, W.D. Jr. and G.R. Allen, 2001. Lutjanidae. Jobfishes. p. 2840-2918. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9821)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.8 - 28.4, mean 26.9 °C (based on 1267 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00923 - 0.02851), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.31 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.7 [17.6, 62.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.673 [0.415, 1.134] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.7, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.080, 0.213] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.3 [20.9, 75.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 67.7 [22.8, 210.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.70, 1.62] mg/100g (wet weight);