Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
More on author: Smith.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 100 - 200 m (Ref. 86942). Deep-water; 35°N - 34°S
Indo-West Pacific: tropical, known only from a few scattered localities.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 31.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 10. The inner surface of the pectoral fin axil without scales. Overall color is silvery-gray with yellowish suffusion; scale margins are narrowly brownish. Indistinct dark blotches or bars are sometimes apparent on the body. The lips are whitish to yellow. The fins are yellow, faint brown spotting may be present on soft dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. A narrow blackish bar runs across the base of the pectoral fin.
Inhabits the outer edge of the continental shelf. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates and small fishes. Caught mainly with bottom longlines and bottom trawls (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.4 - 24.3, mean 19.9 °C (based on 186 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00657 - 0.05282), b=2.96 (2.72 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.45 [3.87, 20.12] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.248 [0.111, 0.542] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.2, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.070, 0.340] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.1 [4.5, 33.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.3 [2.2, 90.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.398 [0.225, 0.699] mg/100g (wet weight);