Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Seale.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 2295), usually 2 - 18 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 31°N - 32°S, 96°E - 134°W
Pacific Ocean: Indonesia and Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Australia, east to the Tuamoto Islands. Has most frequently been named Lethrinus mahsena.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 32.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 2290)
Inhabits seagrass beds and sandy areas of lagoons and outer reef slopes. Found singly or in schools. Feeds mainly on crustaceans, mollusks, and fish. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gonochorism is inferred for this species as sizes of males and females overlapped and male gonad morphology is typical of secondarily derived testes (Ref. 103751). Juvenile hermaphroditism is exhibited by this species (Ref. 35994).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2744 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00998 - 0.02404), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.29-0.31; tm=3.7-5; tmax=24).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44 [31, 65] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.855 [0.614, 1.202] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.4 [18.2, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.136 [0.102, 0.183] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.5 [32.7, 74.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.5 [5.3, 118.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.08 [1.50, 2.77] mg/100g (wet weight);