Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Congridae
(Conger and garden eels) > Congrinae
Etymology: Gnathophis: Greek, gnathos = jaw + Greek, ophis = serpent (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 75 - 800 m. Subtropical; 46°N - 30°N, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Portugal to Morocco, including the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Found on muddy or sandy bottoms of the continental slope. Adults feed on benthic invertebrates and probably small fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and L. Saldanha, 1986. Congridae (including Heterocongridae). p. 567-574. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 2. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 6521)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.2 - 15.3, mean 14.2 °C (based on 134 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00072 (0.00043 - 0.00121), b=3.14 (2.99 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .