Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 700 m (Ref. 4510), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 12°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Senegal, Madeira, Azores and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean (rare in northern Adriatic) and the Black Sea (as Scorpaena notata afimbria).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115876); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 91186)
Common in rocky littoral habitats. Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 4570). Flesh is tasty and used in making 'bouillabaisse' (Ref. 12382).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C. and N.I. Litvinenko, 1986. Scorpaenidae. p. 1211-1229. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol 3. (Ref. 4570)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.2 - 16.2, mean 14.6 °C (based on 182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01136 - 0.01461), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 163 [74, 398] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.45 [0.85, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.3, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.56 [0.27, 1.44] g/100g ; Selenium = 34 [17, 81] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.1 [5.6, 36.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.928 [0.637, 1.349] mg/100g (wet weight);