Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Remora: Latin, remora = delay, hindrance (1567) (Ref. 45335); remora: remora meaning delay or hindrance; these fish were once thought to delay a ship's progress when they attached to the hull (Ref. 4389). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical; 60°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E
Cosmopolitan in warm waters. Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) to New Zealand and Norfolk Island (Ref. 8879). Eastern Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: North Sea to the Canary Islands, including the western Mediterranean. Recorded from Iceland (Ref. 13583) and between Sweden and Denmark (Ref. 28571).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Usually associated with sharks but also attaches itself to other large fishes, sea turtles and even ships (Ref. 2850, 58302); found in gill chambers, fins and body surface (Ref. 5951). Sometimes free-swimming (Ref. 2850). Younger individual is more active as parasite pickers (Ref. 26938). Feeds on parasitic copepods (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lachner, E.A. and A. Post, 1990. Echeneidae. p. 725-728. In J. C. Quéro, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 28.2, mean 24.8 °C (based on 2107 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5352 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00111 - 0.00682), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .