Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
(Livebearing brotulas) > Bythitinae
Etymology: Grammonus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, onos = hake. More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 30 m. Subtropical; 47°N - 30°N, 1°E - 20°E
Eastern Atlantic: in the Mediterranean from the Balearic Islands to the Adriatic.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4758)
Inhabits shallow rocky areas (Ref. 4758). Probably a deep dweller that migrates to coastal areas in August (Ref. 12382). Uncommon species (Ref. 34024). Nocturnal, hides in caves during the day (Ref. 12382).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.4 - 20.08, mean 18.8 °C (based on 218 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .