Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 450 - 2500 m (Ref. 4774). Deep-water; 64°N - 51°S, 77°W - 174°W (Ref. 1371)
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Faeroes to Cape Bojador, West Africa, and including Azores, Madeira, and western Mediterranean. Also known from the Walvis and Vavilov ridges (Ref. 45011). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783). Western Indian Ocean: in the region south of Madagascar. Pacific Ocean: temperate Australia, New Zealand, and between Valparaiso, Chile and the Juan Fernandez Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258)
soft rays: 18 - 21. Eyes relatively large, greater than snout length in diameter. Anal fin originating near midlength of body, deeply indented at midlength, sometimes appearing as two. Ventral light organ absent. Color is generally gray.
Recorded from the upper continental slope (Ref. 9563). Occasionally found at 50 m. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and other invertebrates as well as food of terrestrial origin, including garbage. Probably a winter and early spring spawner (Ref . 4774).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.2 - 8.9, mean 5 °C (based on 1437 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00481 - 0.00867), b=3.13 (3.05 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 15.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm>4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 16.5 [7.7, 35.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.387 [0.202, 0.688] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.8, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.347 [0.168, 0.683] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.4 [7.5, 41.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.93 [2.34, 42.94] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.428 [0.291, 0.633] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.