Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 5288). Subtropical; 45°N - 8°S, 32°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Portugal to Cape Verde, including the Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Also throughout the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000)
Found on shelf, on rocky coasts, rough sand, gravel, crevices, small caves and shadowed zones (Ref. 3256). Feeds on small crabs and gastropods (Ref. 3254).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, D.G. and E.B. Böhlke, 1990. Muraenidae. p. 136-148. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4450)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.5 - 21.8, mean 19.2 °C (based on 608 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00048 (0.00025 - 0.00090), b=3.28 (3.12 - 3.44), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (88 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 60.5 [34.8, 115.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.87 [0.54, 1.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.4, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.289 [0.141, 0.733] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.3 [24.4, 86.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.03 [2.24, 26.96] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.704 [0.498, 0.997] mg/100g (wet weight);