Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Uranoscopoidei
(Sand dwellers) > Ammodytidae
Etymology: Gymnammodytes: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, ammos = sand + Greek, dytes = somebody that likes immersions or diving (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 120 m (Ref. 122887). Subtropical; 50°N - 10°N, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: including the Adriatic, Aegean and Black Sea, Portugal and Senegal. Has also been reported from southern Morocco, Mauritania, and Angola (Ref. 10813).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
soft rays: 27 - 32;
Vertebrae: 64 - 68. Ventrolateral skin-folds extending well beyond pectoral fins to anus. Lateral line branched. Back golden brown or greenish, belly silvery, head usually dark blue.
Found over shell-gravel and coarse sand bottoms (Ref. 6450). Minimum depth from Ref. 122877.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., 1990. Ammodytidae. p. 920. In J. C. Quéro, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10813)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.8 - 18.1, mean 14.3 °C (based on 57 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 172 [86, 347] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.69 [1.04, 2.96] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.306 [0.183, 0.514] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.5 [13.7, 55.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.4 [8.2, 60.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.04 [0.70, 1.53] mg/100g (wet weight);