Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anguilliformes
(Eels and morays) > Ophichthidae
(Snake eels) > Ophichthinae
Etymology: Echelus: Greek, egchelys, -yos = eel (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 3 - 550 m (Ref. 94080). Subtropical; 45°N - 5°S, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Pointe Noire, Congo including the Mediterranean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999)
Found on mud and sand bottom of estuaries and coastal lagoons. Burrows in sand with only the head protruding (Ref. 2683).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Leiby, M., 1990. Ophichthidae. p. 176-192. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4455)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.6 - 17.2, mean 14.8 °C (based on 222 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00186 (0.00112 - 0.00310), b=2.83 (2.69 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95.9 [52.1, 192.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.23 [0.79, 2.11] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.4, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.631 [0.269, 1.778] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.9 [19.3, 102.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.67 [2.18, 31.11] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.864 [0.589, 1.288] mg/100g (wet weight);