Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 4742). Subtropical; 48°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Gascogne to Gibraltar including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.0, range 5 - 7 cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found near rocks, mainly in eel-grass beds (Ref. 4742). Mainly solitary (Ref. 4742). Nest of seaweed built by male (Ref. 4742). Feed on mollusks, bivalves, gastropods, shrimps, sea-urchins and hydroids (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Each male builds a nest of seaweed for one or two females to spawn in (Ref. 4742).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 21, mean 18.7 °C (based on 584 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00615 - 0.01784), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20-0.62; tm=1; tmax=8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 65.8 [27.0, 147.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.26 [0.65, 2.84] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [15, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.464 [0.200, 1.149] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.6 [5.2, 32.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 119 [26, 573] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.77 [0.98, 3.73] mg/100g (wet weight);