Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Zenarchopteridae
(Internally fertilized halfbeaks)
Etymology: Zenarchopterus: Particle zen, derived from zao = to give life + Greek, archos = anus + Greek, pteron = fin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; pelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Islands, New Guinea, the East Indies and the Admiralty, Solomon, and the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 10943). Reported from the estuaries along the Cambodian coast (Ref. 12693).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693)
soft rays: 10 - 13;
Vertebrae: 37 - 42. Sixth anal fin ray thickened and greatly elongate, reaching posteriorly past the base of the caudal fin. Fourth or fifth dorsal fin ray of males thickened and much longer than the other dorsal rays, the distal end flat and wider than the other dorsal rays.
A tropical estuarine species (Ref. 10943). Found at surface levels in estuaries. Its habitat may be confined to brackish water. Feeds on terrestrial insects. Not seen in markets (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301. (Ref. 10943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00181 - 0.01006), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .