Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Atheriniformes
(Silversides) > Atherinidae
(Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 45°N - 25°N, 20°W - 45°E
Eastern Atlantic: coasts of Spain and Morocco including Madeira and the Canary Islands. Also in the western Mediterranean, Adriatic Sea and Black Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5980); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5980)
Total scales in midlateral series 59-65. Anal fin with 10-12 1/2 rays (Ref. 59043).
Littoral, often near shore. Gregarious, sometimes occurs in marine lagoons (France) and estuaries (Portugal). Feed on pelagic copepods and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 5980).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Atherinidae. p. 604-605. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.1 - 21.1, mean 19 °C (based on 523 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00429 - 0.00703), b=3.08 (3.01 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 186 [96, 359] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.17 [1.20, 4.04] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.5 [18.9, 22.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.285, 1.175] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.1 [8.0, 42.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.1 [8.8, 88.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.72 [1.13, 2.72] mg/100g (wet weight);