Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Rhynchorhamphus: Greek, rhingchos = snout + Greek,rhamphos = bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical
Western Central Pacific: restricted to the Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea and Java Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Hemiramphidae. Halfbeaks. p. 2180-2196. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9843)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.1 - 29.1, mean 28.8 °C (based on 358 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00288 (0.00131 - 0.00635), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .