Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Arrhamphus: Greek, a = without + Greek, rhamphos = bill, peak (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous; depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical; 24°S - 22°S
Eastern Indian Ocean to Western Pacific: Carnarvon, Western Australia to Lindeman Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847)
A coastal species that extends into fresh water. Occurs in brackish estuaries, but frequently found in the lower, tidal portions of freshwater streams (Ref. 2847). Considered an excellent food fish taken by commercial and recreational fishers (Ref. 9843).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 2004. Family Hemiramphidae Gill 1859. Halfbeaks. Calif. Acad. Sci. Annotated Checklists of Fishes (22):35. (Ref. 51649)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.7 - 28.8, mean 27.9 °C (based on 316 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00146 - 0.00687), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100).