Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 850 m (Ref. 4479). Deep-water
Western Atlantic: tropical and subtropical waters, but extensions to 40°N and 28°S in western boundary currents. Eastern Atlantic: between about 28°N to 16°S, but seasonally less abundant in the Mauritanian Upwelling Region. Indian Ocean: in the equatorial region, including Reunion (Ref. 33390). Western Central Pacific: Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6993).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 9.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
High-oceanic species found between 425-850 m during the day and nyctoepipelagic at the surface and down to 125 m (Ref. 4479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.2 - 22.9, mean 17.3 °C (based on 437 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00217 - 0.01392), b=3.09 (2.86 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .