Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 1300 - 2600 m (Ref. 4460), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Eastern Central Atlantic: 1°42'N. Also known from the Indian Ocean (Ref. 4460). Probably occurring in the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 38717).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4460)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Markle, D.F. and Y.I. Sazanov, 1990. Alepocephalidae. p. 246-264. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4460)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.3 - 5.5, mean 4 °C (based on 287 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00164 - 0.00733), b=3.19 (3.00 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43 [18, 110] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.478 [0.248, 0.973] mg/100g ; Protein = 13.6 [11.0, 16.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.449 [0.196, 1.123] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.8 [5.9, 34.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.8 [3.7, 65.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.62 [0.40, 1.01] mg/100g (wet weight);