Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188). Tropical; 29°N - 8°S, 72°E - 124°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-Pacific: Indian Ocean (Malabar coast to Calcutta), Java Sea (off Java), Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), South China Sea (Singapore, Gulf of Thailand), East China Sea (north to Taiwan Island).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108866)
soft rays: 35 - 48. Belly with usually 17 to 21 + 8 or 9, total 25 to 30 scutes. Eye large, lower jaw projecting. Dorsal fin origin a little before midpoint of body; anal fin origin under hind part of dorsal fin base. Vertical striae on scales traversing whole scale or overlapping across center of scale. Swim bladder with two tubes passing back in the muscles on either side of haemal spines.
Occurs in coastal waters but enters estuaries and presumably able to tolerate lowered salinities. Feeds on plankton (probably small crustaceans, etc.).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 752 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00540 - 0.01405), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 307 [164, 541] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.8 [1.1, 3.1] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.9, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.905 [0.407, 2.057] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.7 [20.3, 100.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 23.3 [7.9, 57.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.97 [1.37, 2.85] mg/100g (wet weight);