Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 36484), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 9°N, 99°W - 59°W (Ref. 55233)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to northeastern Brazil (Ref. 57756), including the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626). Common around the Caribbean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); common length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 26340)
soft rays: 8. Lower jaw projecting slightly beyond upper jaw; lower corner of preopercle greatly projecting and strongly serrated. Preorbital bone broad, maxilla extending nearly to mid-eye level. Preopercular notch and knob moderate. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Back and upper side gray to dark olive grading to silvery ventrally. Usually with a black spot, about eye size, on lateral line below the anterior soft dorsal-fin rays.
Adults inhabit clear shallow waters over rocky bottoms in the vicinity of coral reefs, less frequently in sandy or seagrass areas. They often form large aggregations during the day. They feed at night mainly on small fish, shrimps, crabs and cephalopods (Ref. 78464).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 28, mean 26.6 °C (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00953 - 0.03026), b=2.96 (2.81 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 11.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15.8 [8.7, 28.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.448 [0.260, 0.776] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.7, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.239 [0.142, 0.399] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.7 [15.0, 63.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 271 [51, 1,060] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.34 [0.22, 0.61] mg/100g (wet weight);