Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 121773). Tropical; 30°N - 10°N, 34°E - 76°E
Northern Indian Ocean: from the Red Sea to western India, including the Persian Gulf.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)
Demersal on insular and continental shelves, and occasionally found in coastal embayments (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught in large quantities as by-catch of bottom trawl and trammel net fisheries. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its very small size (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with histotrophy. Gives birth to litters of 1-2 pups; no reproductive synchronicity. Born at 8-10 cm WD (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1999. Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.1 - 29.1, mean 28.8 °C (based on 326 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00214 (0.00123 - 0.00371), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .