Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urolophidae
Etymology: Trygonoptera: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Müller & Henle.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 135 m (Ref. 9863), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 9863). Temperate; 26°S - 38°S
Western Pacific: southern Queensland to New South Wales.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9863)
Found in sandy beaches and reefs but also well offshore. May venture well upstream in estuaries (Ref. 6871). Feeds on worms, crustaceans, bony fishes, and other stingarees (Ref. 12951).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.1 - 24.1, mean 18.2 °C (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 24.9 [3.5, 136.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.314 [0.058, 1.226] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [16, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.929 [0.258, 3.081] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.4 [2.0, 48.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.1 [4.1, 95.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.62 [0.16, 2.34] mg/100g (wet weight);