Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory. Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Bombay, India to Singapore, Gulf of Thailand, North Borneo, Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 11 - 13. Row of papillae, often 7-9, on upper surface of eye, middle one elongate. Base of lower opercular spine concealed by scales. Anterior 2-21 lateral line scales bearing a small spine. Iris lappet crenate.
Ranges from muddy substrates in estuaries to deep offshore (Ref. 48635). Probably associated with aquatic vegetation at shallow depths (Ref. 9790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knapp, L.W., 1999. Platycephalidae. Flatheads. p. 2385-2421. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.1 - 29.1, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1388 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00235 - 0.01120), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .