Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Ehiravinae
Etymology: Clupeonella: Latin, clupea = sardine, derived from Clupeus = shield; diminutive (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; pelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 32 m (Ref. 188). Temperate; 43°N - 35°N, 47°E - 54°E (Ref. 188)
Former USSR and Asia: central and southern parts of the Caspian Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 11.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body moderately slender; head long and narrow; belly sharply keeled, with 26 to 32 scutes; pectoral fin tips rounded; last two anal fin rays enlarged; pterotic bulla absent; no notch at the center of the upper jaw.
Schools in the open sea, not approaching shores. Occurs mainly in the south in winter, migrating to the middle parts of the sea in spring and returning south in November-December. Found in upper layers in March-April, but descends to 16 to 32 m in summer and autumn. Feeds mainly on copepods, also pelagic mysids and small fishes. Breeds in January-September intermittently in the open sea. Stocks said to be depleted in southern part of Caspian Sea.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00445 - 0.01234), b=3.01 (2.87 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 (2.2 - 4.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 11 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .