Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Sarotherodon: Greek, saros, -ou = sawdust + Greek, ther = animal * Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lönnberg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 13614); 5°N - 4°N
Africa: endemic to Lake Barombi Mbo, West Cameroon (Ref. 4999, 52307, 81260).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81260)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 14 - 16;
soft rays: 8 - 11;
Vertebrae: 29. Diagnosis: 15-20 rakers on lower limb of first arch; 30-32 scales in lateral line (Ref. 81260). Body dark grey or green (Ref. 2, 81260). Head large, especially in adults (Ref. 2), its length 37-45% of standard length (Ref. 81260). Jaw teeth very small (Ref. 81260). Breeding males green; intense tilapia-mark present in young until about 10 cm SL, absent above 15 cm SL; as the gonads mature the lower parts of the head and the flanks become more metallic and green; most brooding females silver grey in general color; fins mainly of a neutral color; pelvic fins may be yellow (Ref. 2).
Occasionally forms schools; is mainly diurnal; juveniles feed on mayfly larvae and various terrestrial insects among a diet in which animal items formed a high proportion (Ref. 2). Adults feed predominantly on phytoplankton (Ref. 2, 52307). Congregates in small groups (under 10 individuals) in open water regions and at a maximum depth of about 5 m (Ref. 52307). Lacks marked sexual dichromatism when sexually active (Ref. 81260). Ovophilic, maternal mouth brooder (Ref. 52307) that forms temporary pair bonds (Ref. 81260) prior to spawning, but none after (Ref. 52307). Ventures to regions near the edges of the lake for spawning, where the male constructs craters in the sand; males infrequently incubate the eggs (Ref. 52307).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Brooding by both sexes, predominantly by the female.
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Sarotherodon. p. 425-437. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 4999)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquaculture: likely future use
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00747 - 0.04041), b=3.03 (2.84 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .