Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888). Temperate; 15°S - 40°S, 110°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific: southern Australia, from Geraldton, Western Australia to Cooktown, Queensland.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812); common length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9812)
Form schools in shallows, bogs and lower estuaries, and more saline lagoons. Often seen jumping at the surface (Ref. 9812). Fish younger than one year can be found in freshwaters, but not when older (Ref. 9812). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Spawn in the sea. Feed on minute benthic organisms, including small crustaceans and filamentous algae. Marketed fresh and filleted (Ref. 9812).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bathia, U. and T. Wongratana, 1974. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (fishing area 57) and Western Central Pacific (Fishing Area 71). Volume 3. [var. pag.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2109)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.2 - 25.2, mean 18.5 °C (based on 152 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00548 - 0.02407), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.33 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .