Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae
(Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Platax: Greek, platys = flat (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 9407). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia (including Mentawai Islands), New Guinea, and Philippines.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9407)
soft rays: 24 - 28. Juveniles have extremely elongate vertical fins and closely resemble juvenile P. teira, but tend to be lighter with a silvery hue. Adults have smoothly rounded head profile like P. orbicularis, but usually have golden hue and lack small black spots (Ref. 37816). Adults (above 18 cm) yellowish silvery, usually with small, scattered black spots on body, dark bar through eye, and another bar just behind head. Median fins yellowish green. Anal-fin margin and rear margin of caudal fin black. Pelvic fins black. Small juveniles yellowish brown or silvery, with 2 black bars as in adults. Rear third of body blackish, the black colour continued onto dorsal and anal fins, and the front of the black zone on body often closely precede by a narrow faint dark bar. Caudal fin transparent except for black base. Jaws with bands of slender, flattened, tricuspid teeth, the middle cusp barely longer than lateral cups (Ref 43039).
Adults occur mostly in large schools along drop-offs, including outer reefs; singly in coastal waters. Juveniles are on deep slopes among tall coral formation (Ref. 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kuiter, R.H. and H. Debelius, 1994. Southeast Asia tropical fish guide. IKAN-Unterwasserarchiv, Frankfurt, Germany. 321 p. (Ref. 9407)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.3 - 29, mean 28.2 °C (based on 798 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02692 (0.01111 - 0.06519), b=2.93 (2.73 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.6 [29.0, 83.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.485 [0.283, 0.833] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.09, 0.24] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [16.1, 62.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 86.1 [25.9, 278.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.909 [0.611, 1.340] mg/100g (wet weight);