Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 500 m (Ref. 9563). Temperate; 31°S - 40°S
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to southern Australia, from off Lancelin, Western Australia to Bass Strait.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 66.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563)
A temperate species (Ref. 7300) occurring on rocky reefs and muddy substrates of the continental shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 9563), singly or in pairs (Ref. 79654).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986. Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania. 492 p. (Ref. 9563)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 17.1, mean 15.6 °C (based on 45 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5088 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00593 - 0.02800), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .