Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Cyclopsetta: Greek, kyklos = round + Greek, psetta = grouper (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Bollman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 55763). Tropical; 32°N - 7°S, 115°W - 77°W
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); 43.2 cm TL (female); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 105273)
Inhabits soft bottoms, from within the vicinity of mangrove areas up to a depth of 29 m (Ref. 9330). Feeds on large benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330). Max. length size of female from Ref. 105273.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Hensley, D.A., 1995. Paralichthyidae. Lenguados. p. 1349-1380. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9330)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.3 - 29.1, mean 26.8 °C (based on 240 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00376 - 0.01216), b=3.12 (2.96 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 235 [105, 533] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [1, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.2, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.379 [0.160, 0.900] g/100g ; Selenium = 63.1 [20.2, 180.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.6 [4.2, 72.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.05 [0.65, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);