Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulopsis: Greek, haimaleos = bloody + Greek, opsis = with appearance (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 32°N - 12°S, 115°W - 77°W
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114)
Body robust, compressed, and not very deep (depth contained 2.7 to 3.3 times in standard length); mouth small and terminal, its posterior end located at the same level as the anterior rim of the eye; first gill arch with 17 to 20 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 12 spines ad 14 to 15 soft rays (XII, 14-15); second anal spine shorter than third; body silvery bronzed; scales dark edged, forming longitudinal lines along each series of scales; anterior end of lateral line with an indistinct spot (Ref. 55763).
Inhabits coastal seas, on sandy or muddy bottoms. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider, 1995. Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.3 - 28.4, mean 24.9 °C (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00851 - 0.02138), b=2.90 (2.77 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 174 [93, 295] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.898 [0.497, 1.554] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.9, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.259 [0.136, 0.456] g/100g ; Selenium = 65.8 [33.1, 119.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.8 [9.7, 47.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.11 [0.69, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);