Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical; 38°N - 1°S
Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114)
Body oblong, compressed, and fairly deep (depth contained 3.0 to 3.1 times in standard length); mouth large, terminal, and oblique, its anterior edge located at the same level as the center of the eye; first gill arch with 26 to 36 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 10 to 12 spines and 15 to 18 soft rays (X-XII, 15-18); second anal spine longer and stronger than third; scale series above lateral line oblique; body light brown; each scale bearing a pearly blue spot, the spots appearing to form lines following the scale series; fins yellowish (Ref. 55763).
Benthic in coastal waters. Forms schools over rocky and sandy bottoms. Feeds at night. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider, 1995. Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.6 - 28.5, mean 25.8 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00660 - 0.03472), b=3.02 (2.84 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 9.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 87 [43, 180] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.645 [0.347, 1.342] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.3, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.25 [0.11, 0.50] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.1 [21.1, 110.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.3 [16.3, 205.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.726 [0.416, 1.193] mg/100g (wet weight);