Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 71°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Vardø, Norway, Baltic Sea and the British Isles to Morocco. Also throughout the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Record off Ghana is still questionable (Ref. 4509).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout is compressed and taller than the eye diameter (Ref. 35388) and anterior trunk rings not fused ventrally (Ref. 59043).
Usually found along the coasts and estuaries at a temperature range of 8° to 24°C (Ref. 4944). Often associated with Zostera or other vegetation (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer (Ref. 35388).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205, 53335).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 19.6, mean 14 °C (based on 1098 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00030 (0.00022 - 0.00040), b=3.14 (3.08 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.56; tm=1; Fec=100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .