Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Tylosurus: Greek, tylos = callus + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical; 32°N - 5°S
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Cabo Blanco, Peru; including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 103 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124487); common length : 70.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9279); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. 124487)
Generally found offshore, but may also encountered in coastal areas (Ref. 9279). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Usually caught with the help of artificial lights (Ref. 9279). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 9279). The flesh is of good quality (Ref. 9279).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1995. Belonidae. Agujones, maraos. p. 919-926. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9279)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.9 - 28.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 78 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00071 (0.00038 - 0.00133), b=3.13 (2.97 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 117 [50, 325] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.895 [0.479, 1.598] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [13.7, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.283 [0.113, 0.762] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.6 [26.1, 132.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 165 [21, 931] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.871 [0.549, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);