Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 7 - 200 m (Ref. 11298). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: East Africa and throughout the Indian Ocean to the Indo-Australian Archipelago and New Caledonia, north to southern Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11298); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3322)
soft rays: 59 - 65. A pair of jet-black blotches on caudal fin placed between 3rd and 4th rays counted from above and below respectively. Body deep, its depth more than 1/2 of SL. Pectoral fin short, equal to or less than head length. In male, body on blind side stained with dark-gray.
Found on sandy and muddy areas of the continental shelf. Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, and other benthic animals (Ref. 9824). Marketed fresh and sometimes dried (Ref. 9824).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Amaoka, K., E. Mihara and J. Rivaton, 1993. Pisces, Pleuronectiformes: Flatfishes from the waters around New Caledonia. - A revision of the genus Engyprosopon. p. 377-426. In A. Crosnier (ed.) Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM, Volume 22. Mém. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. (158):377-426. (Ref. 9558)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 28.3, mean 26.8 °C (based on 1099 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00533 - 0.01633), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 82.3 [40.8, 158.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.65 [0.40, 1.11] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.8, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.102 [0.050, 0.194] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.5 [12.6, 53.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 82.3 [20.4, 303.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.37 [0.87, 2.06] mg/100g (wet weight);