Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 150 m (Ref. 9824). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S, 26°E - 138°W
Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to Hawaiian, Marquesas, and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Record from the eastern Mediterranean incorrect (Ref. 9824).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3322)
soft rays: 61 - 73. Eyed side with dark spots, blotches and rings on body and median fins; 1 distinct dark blotch on middle of straight section of lateral line; narrow dark crossbars on eyed side of pectorals (Ref. 4417). Pectoral rays 9-12 (eyed side) and 9-11 (blind side).
Inhabits sandy or silty sand, and muddy bottoms of inner reef flats and seaward reefs; juveniles frequently found in tide pools (Ref. 9824, 48637). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds on benthic animals (Ref. 5213). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 4537) and processed into fish meal (Ref. 9824).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hensley, D.A., 1986. Bothidae. p. 854-863. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4417)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.6 - 28.3, mean 25.1 °C (based on 608 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00434 - 0.01593), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.25, 95% CL = 0.14 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41.2 [20.8, 76.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.456 [0.272, 0.782] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.0924 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.5 [15.5, 62.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 75.7 [18.9, 271.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1 [1, 2] mg/100g (wet weight);