Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 30 - ? m (Ref. 2058). Subtropical; 47°N - 28°N, 6°W - 42°E
Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Sea of Azov.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 115022); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 4696)
Benthic, inshore, brackish water, estuaries and lagoons, on mud and eel-grass meadows. Commercial in the Black Sea and in Sivash (Ref. 2058). Occasionally recorded in freshwater, but there are no documented records of actual occurrence in European freshwaters (Ref. 59043).
Iteroparous, females produce more than one batch of eggs within the breeding season (Ref. 50965).
Miller, P.J., 1979. Gobiidae. p. 483-515. In J.C. Hureau and Th. Monod (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4345)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 20.1, mean 17.1 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00743 - 0.00975), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; Fec>5,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .