Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 30 m (Ref. 93839), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific: Japan south to northwestern Australia; Indonesia east to Solomon Islands; reported from New Zealand (Ref. 5755) and Andaman Island (Ref. 87596).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
soft rays: 8. Juveniles strongly striped. Adults with faint stripes, but tall anteriorly pointed second dorsal fin. Sometimes has dark peduncular spot which can be turned on or off with mood (Ref. 48635).
Inhabits inshore reefs, crevices of reef flats and coral slopes (Ref. 9710). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.4 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2368 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00528 - 0.02384), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 128 [78, 285] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.916 [0.577, 1.400] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [18.4, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.175 [0.115, 0.271] g/100g ; Selenium = 31 [17, 54] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 80.8 [30.0, 209.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.64 [1.16, 2.28] mg/100g (wet weight);