Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical; 26°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 9710) and Taiwan, south to northern half of Australia; Marshall and Caroline islands in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 12. Body mottled with brown and white blotches above, whitish below; back crossed by 4-5 dark bands which may be indistinct (Ref. 4315). Lips with a row of small fleshy papillae. Base of lower opercular spine concealed by scales. Dorsal fin rays usually 11. Iris lappet bearing short branches with bifurcate tips.
Inhabits sand and rubble areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). The species buries itself in the sand for camouflage. Feeds on crabs and prawns, also on fishes. Also found in sandy fringe of coral reefs (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 574 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00235 - 0.01120), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 92.5 [40.0, 222.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.633 [0.371, 1.323] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.148 [0.068, 0.417] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.4 [20.3, 107.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 77.7 [28.5, 195.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.32 [0.82, 2.11] mg/100g (wet weight);