Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335). More on author: Steindachner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6390). Temperate; 28°S - 37°S
Southwest Pacific: eastern Australia from Moreton Bay, Queensland to Eden, New South Wales, including Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 10988)
soft rays: 17 - 20;
Vertebrae: 56 - 58. Preorbital canal with a posterior branch. Relatively longer jaws, especially at larger sizes. Gill rakers usually 34 or more in the first arch and usually 27 or more on the second arch.
Found in sheltered bays, clear coastal waters and sometimes in estuaries (Ref. 27012). Generally herbivorous. Feed mainly on seagrasses and algal filaments (Ref. 26551, 27013). Eastern sea garfish also consume a high proportion of crustaceans (Ref. 27013). A schooling fish, found generally near the surface at night and close to the sea floor over seagrass beds during the day (Ref. 6390). They are being preyed upon by mulloway (Argyrosomus hololepidotus) and tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix), as well as coastal water birds. No studies have been reported on the spawning of this species (Ref. 6390).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1974. The garfishes (Hemiramphidae) of Australia and New Zealand. Records of the Australian Museum 29(2):11-105. (Ref. 10988)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18 - 23.4, mean 20.7 °C (based on 55 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00110 - 0.00524), b=3.11 (2.93 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.25 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .