Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lesueur.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 57911), usually 1 - 10 m. Subtropical; 43°N - 42°S, 97°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: continental waters from Cape Cod to southeastern Florida (?) in the USA; also southern Brazil to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Reported (but not known for certain) from Gulf of Mexico, Florida and Caribbean islands, and northern South America. Often confused with Myliobatis goodei (Ref. 3173).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 65.0, range 60 - 70 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 57911); common length : 70.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Disk broad with long sharply pointed wings and projecting snout. Tail very long, Few middorsal spines on disk in adults (Ref. 7251). Greyish, reddish chocolate or dusky brown above. Lower surface either pure white or whitish. Teeth green (Ref. 6902).
Found frequently in coastal waters to 10 m depth, mainly in shallow estuaries. Capable of traveling long distances, occasionally leaps out of the water. Swims in midwater. Cruises slowly over the bottom, rooting out bivalves with its beak and wings when feeding (Ref. 7251). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.2 - 28.1, mean 24.2 °C (based on 594 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00119 - 0.01275), b=3.09 (2.84 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4-8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.3 [6.1, 144.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.19 [0.31, 3.38] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.8 [17.3, 22.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.488 [0.142, 1.431] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.9 [5.0, 70.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.7 [3.9, 34.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.908 [0.444, 2.411] mg/100g (wet weight);