Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Cichlasomatinae
Etymology: Hypsophrys: Greek, hypsi = high + Greek, ophrys = eyebrow (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 20; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 23°C - 36°C (Ref. 36880)
Central America: Atlantic slope, from the San Juan drainage, including Lake Nicaragua, in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, to the Matina River drainage in Costa Rica.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377); 20.0 cm TL (female)
(total): 18 - 19;
soft rays: 7 - 9. This species can be distinguished by the dark line running through the middle of the body and the large black blotch positioned midlength; head profile extremely curved with the mouth on the lower part of the head; in males, the scales have dark edges producing a reticulated pattern, their fins with many dark spots, and a red edge to the dorsal fin; both males with iridescent, greenish-blue head and with gold to copper-colored bodies (Ref. 44091).
Inhabit lakes and rivers with slow to moderate currents, between 5 to 200 m elevation (Ref. 36880). Juveniles feed on aquatic insects, while adults feed on bottom detritus, seeds and leaves. Also naturally feed on snails and other mollusks, but will accept a variety of food in captivity (Ref. 44091). Maximum length 25 cm TL (Ref. 2060).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Deposits eggs in sand depressions. Produces about 200-400 non adhesive eggs with females practicing communal care during the post spawning period (an unusual behavior referred to as "creching", Ref. 44091). A group of 3 or 4 females stand guard over their combined spawns, encircling the expanded group and do not allow any intruders or predators into the rearing arena.
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.00927 - 0.04498), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .