Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Paranthias: Greek, para = in the side of, near + Greek, anthis = a fish, Sparus aurata (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 8 - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually 10 - 66 m (Ref. 13442). Subtropical; 35°N - 28°S, 98°W - 10°E (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island and Gulf of Guinea islands of Principe, São Tomé, and Annobon. Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Campeche Bank, and throughout the Caribbean (except in northern Bahamas) to Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2739)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Distinguished by the following characteristics: Head short (less than 35% of SL) (Ref. 26938); head and body reddish brown, paler ventrally; bright orange-red spot at the upper end of the pectoral-fin base; 3 widely spaced white spots between lateral line and dorsal-fin base; 2 blue lines on the cheek, one approximately horizontal and tangential to the lower edge of the eye, other along the upper edge of maxilla and continued onto the lower part of the cheek; depth of body contained 2.9-3.4 times in SL; subangular preopercle, vertical edge and rear half of lower edge finely serrate; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Inhabits coral reefs and hard bottom areas. Observed in feeding aggregations well above the reef. Feeds mainly in midwater on zooplankton (copepods, pelagic tunicates, shrimps and shrimp larvae). Retreats instantly when alarmed (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 704 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00550 - 0.02289), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.28).
Prior r = 0.44, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.68, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.9 [14.6, 59.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.944 [0.516, 1.702] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.219 [0.123, 0.397] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.6 [7.5, 30.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 93.3 [26.8, 319.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.931 [0.577, 1.575] mg/100g (wet weight);